Internal Medicine Consultation, This Is What You Need to Know - Internal medicine consultation is an examination procedure that is performed to examine the condition and disorders of the internal organs of the body and to diagnose internal diseases that may be suffered by the patient. The results of the consultation will be used to determine and plan the type of treatment that is appropriate to the patient's condition.
Internal medicine is a medical specialty that deals with various types of medical conditions or diseases that affect the performance and function of internal organs in the human body. Doctors who specifically handle internal diseases are called internal medicine specialists (Sp. PD) or internists. The main purpose of internal medicine consultation is to diagnose, treat, and prevent various types of internal diseases.
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Type of Internal Medicine
The following are some sub specialties of the branch of internal medicine, and examples of the types of diseases handled:
Immunology Allergy (Sp. PD-KAI), which is a branch of internal medicine related to allergies and disorders of the immune system. Examples of diseases: asthma, allergic rhinitis, and urticaria or biduran.
Gastroenterohepatology (Sp. PD-KGEH), which is a branch of internal medicine that is related to disorders of the digestive system and liver. Examples of diseases: gastritis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis.
Geriatrics (Sp. PD-KGer), which is a branch of internal medicine related to medical disorders experienced by elderly patients due to the aging process. Examples of diseases: dementia and osteoarthritis
Hypertension kidney (Sp. PD-KGH), which is a branch of internal medicine related to kidney organ disorders and high blood pressure. Examples of diseases: chronic or acute kidney failure, urinary tract infections, and hypertension
Medical oncology hematology (Sp. PD-KHOM), which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders or disorders of blood and cancer. Examples of diseases: anemia, leukemia, and lymphoma.
Cardiology (Sp.PD-KKV), which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the heart. Examples of diseases: heart failure, coronary heart disease, and heart valve disease.
Endocrine Metabolic (Sp. PD-KEMD), which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the body's metabolic processes. Examples of diseases: diabetes, thyroid hormone disorders, and high cholesterol.
Psychosomatic (Sp. PD-KPsi), which is a branch of internal medicine related to the type of disease that appears or is exacerbated by a mental disorder. Examples of diseases: irritable bowel syndrome.
Pulmonology (Sp. PD-KP), which is a branch of internal medicine related to pulmonary organ disorders. Examples of diseases: tuberculosis, pneumonia, and bronchitis
Rheumatology (Sp. PD-KR), which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the joints and autoimmune conditions. Examples of diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, tendonitis, and lupus.
Tropic infection (Sp. PD-KPTI), which is a branch of internal medicine related to various types of diseases or infections that generally occur in the tropics. Examples of diseases: malaria, elephantiasis (filariasis), and dengue fever.
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Before Internal Medicine Consultation
There are several things that need to be prepared before the patient does an internal disease consultation. This action is important to be done to facilitate the process of examining and diagnosing patients with internal medicine specialists. These include:
- Overall health history, both diseases, and allergies that are or have been suffered by the patient. Preferably, the patient also carries all the previous examinations, such as X-rays, laboratory test results, and the results of CT scans or MRIs that have been undertaken.
- Types of drugs or herbal products that are or have been consumed. The patient should also bring the medicine consumed so the doctor can find out more clearly about the drug.
- Reference letter. Patients should also bring a referral letter from a general practitioner or other specialist doctors. Referral letters can be a preliminary picture for internal medicine doctors regarding the patient's condition, medication instructions, and further treatment.
Internal Medicine Consultation Procedure
There are several types of examinations carried out while the patient is undergoing internal medicine consultation. These types of checks include:
Medical history check
The earliest examination phase in the process of consulting internal medicine. At this stage, the doctor will ask the patient questions about several things, including:
Complaints about health problems experienced by patients today.
Patient medical history, including health problems that have been suffered by patients recently or in the past. This examination includes several things, namely:
- The type of treatment therapy that has been undertaken.
- The surgery that had been passed.
- Complications or trauma experienced by patients.
History of drug use, including drugs that have been or have been consumed, whether
prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, or herbs.
Family health history, including various health problems that are being or have been
experienced by parents, siblings or children of patients.
Lifestyle history and social life, including smoking history, alcohol consumption, drug use, occupation, pet ownership, and hobbies.
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Physical examination is done to detect abnormalities in the patient's body. As a first step, the doctor will usually weigh heavily and measure height. Next, the doctor will examine several things, including:
Examination of vital signs, including measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory frequency.
Advanced physical examination, which is an examination of a number of parts of the body to detect abnormalities or disorders that may be experienced by the patient. Physical examination includes:
- Head and neck. Examination to detect abnormalities or disorders of the throat and tonsils. The quality of teeth and gums can also provide information about the patient's overall health. The head and neck examination also include the ears, nose, eyes, lymph nodes, thyroid, and neck blood vessels.
- Heart. The doctor will use a stethoscope to detect several conditions, such as an irregular heartbeat or abnormal heart sounds.
- Lungs. Examination to detect abnormal sounds that may come from the lung organs.
- Stomach. Examination to detect the size of the liver and the presence of stomach fluid by pressing the patient's stomach, and listening to the sound in the intestine using a stethoscope.
- Nervous and motor system. The examination which includes nerves, muscle strength, reflexes, and balance.
- Skin. Examination of the condition of the skin and nails because it can indicate a disorder or disease in other body parts.
If needed, the doctor will carry out investigations to confirm the diagnosis of a disease. There are several types of supporting examinations, including:
Laboratory examination. The examination is done by taking a sample of blood, urine, or other types of fluids to then undergo an analysis process in the laboratory. Several types of laboratory examinations, including:
- Blood test. Tests are carried out to detect blood cell counts (complete blood count), chemicals in the blood, blood sugar, cholesterol, liver function, thyroid hormones, kidney function, to blood clotting levels.
- Urinalysis. Tests are carried out to detect various disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease, and diabetes. Urine tests usually include examining the appearance, specific gravity, and chemical content of urine.
- Examination of other body fluids. This examination generally includes the examination of sputum and feces. Sputum examination is done to detect the risk of infection that may occur in the lungs or respiratory tract. Meanwhile, the fecal examination is carried out to detect abnormalities or disorders that occur in the patient's digestive system.
- Biopsy. The test is done by taking body tissue samples to be analyzed in the laboratory.
Radiology. This type of examination is carried out to diagnose and treat disease using light waves, high-frequency sound waves, or magnetic fields. Several types of radiological examinations, among others:
- X-rays. Type of medical examination using X-rays to produce images of the patient's inner body.
- Ultrasound is a type of medical examination using high-frequency sound waves to capture images of the patient's inner body. Ultrasound allows the doctor to detect abnormalities or disorders that occur in the patient's organs, vessels, or tissues without having to make an incision.
- CT scan is a type of examination using a computer and X-ray machine that rotates so it can produce images of the inner body from various angles in more detail than X-rays. A CT scan can be used to visualize various parts of the body, such as the head, shoulders, spine, abdomen, knees, and chest.
- MRI is a type of examination using magnetic field media to produce detailed images or 3-dimensional images of organs and tissues in the patient's body. MRI machines are shaped like tubes.
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After Internal Medicine Consultation
After the patient has undergone consultation and examination, the internal medicine specialist will review the results of the examination, the results of the laboratory, and the results of possible investigations. Of all the tests, the specialist will get a decision, namely:
Possible diagnosis. Through consultation and examination, internists can determine the possibility of the diagnosis of symptoms experienced by the patient.
Therapy or treatment plan. After the patient is diagnosed with a disease, the doctor will determine the method or type of treatment therapy that is appropriate to the condition or disease experienced by the patient. Therapy plans are carried out to control symptoms and treat medical disorders experienced by patients. Therapy plans can take the form of:
- Care plan, either inpatient or outpatient.
- Types of medicines to be consumed.
- Medical measures, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, physiotherapy, or dialysis.