Medical check-up - Health is expensive, but when it hurts it can cost more. Therefore, prevention is better than cure. As a precautionary measure, medical check-ups can be done to determine health conditions, as well as detect an illness early.
The earlier a disease is detected, the faster help can be given. In this way, the disease does not progress to a more serious stage. While preventing more complicated help.
Medical check-ups are needed by women and men, both young and elderly. People who look healthy also need to do medical check-ups, especially to check the level of health and the possibility of a serious illness that has not shown symptoms.
In general, the following can be a list of things that are checked through medical check-ups.
An abnormal body mass index (BMI) can trigger various diseases. Obesity can increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, hypertension, and cancer. While physical conditions that are too thin are at risk of weakening the immune system, resulting in osteoporosis, and anemia. Therefore, it is important to check BMI every 2 years for people under 50 years and once a year for over 50 years of age.
Actually, BMI can be counted alone at home. How: weight (kg) / height (m) 2. The normal BMI for the Asian population is 18.5 to 22.9. But if you experience drastic weight loss, obesity, or have an abnormal BMI, immediately consult a doctor to handle it.
This test is carried out for people aged 45 years and over, at least every three years. However, if you are at risk for diabetes, consult your doctor to take the test immediately, and more often, for example, every year.
In addition, if you experience symptoms such as weight loss drastically for no apparent reason, often feel thirsty and hungry, tingling in the hands or feet, and frequent urination, immediately do this test to ensure the possibility of diabetes. Before taking the test, you are advised to fast for 8 hours. A fasting blood sugar test will show one of the following results:
Normal: 70-100 mg / dL
Pre-diabetes: 100-125 mg / dL
Diabetes: ≥ 126 mg / dL
Normal blood pressure for people under 60 years is upper numbers (systolic) less than 140 mm Hg and lower numbers (diastolic) less than 90 or read 140/90. While at the age of over 60 years, the normal standard is less than 150/90 mm Hg. Blood pressure above normal means hypertension (high blood pressure).
For normal people, the test can be done every 1-2 years. Whereas people who have hypertension or hypotension need to take tests every year or more often.
Cholesterol is basically the type of fat the body needs, but excessive amounts can clog arteries and trigger heart disease and stroke. Normal cholesterol is as follows:
- Good cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein / HDL) should be above 60 mg / dL.
- Bad cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein / LDL) should be below 100 mg / dL.
- Triglycerides should be less than 150 mg / dL.
- Total cholesterol should be below 200 mg / dL.
For people with normal health conditions, the test can be done every 5 years, starting at the age of 35 years. But if you are obese, have diabetes or hypertension, have a history of heart disease or stroke in the family, smoke, this test can start from the age of 20 and need to be more frequent. Like blood sugar tests, cholesterol tests require blood sampling.
The heart is one of the vital organs in the human body, the cardiac examination can be done with an electrocardiogram (ECG) test or known as a heart record. Tests are carried out to determine the electrical activity of the heart. With this test can be detected an abnormal heartbeat or other disorders such as blocked blood vessels. This test is done if you experience symptoms of heart disease, such as pain in the chest or palpitations.
Have your eyes checked every 1-2 years especially if you experience vision problems? In addition to visual impairment, examination of children aims to see the possibility of lazy eyes or squinting eyes. Whereas in adults, the examination can find out the conditions:
- Retinopathy, damage to blood vessels behind the eyes for example due to diabetes.
- Glaucoma, damage to the optic nerve and increased eye pressure.
- Cataracts, misty eyes.
Related tests can include:
- Retinal examination: the eye is dripped with special fluid so that the cornea enlarges, then illuminated by the light so the doctor can see the structure in the eye.
- Examination of eye muscles: the doctor will see your eye movements.
- Visual acuity check: using a poster with letters written on it.
- Examination with a slit lamp to examine the eyelids, eyelashes, cornea, iris, lens, and fluid space between the cornea and iris.
- Perimetric test to check the ability of the eye to look sideways without moving the eyeball.
- Intraocular pressure test (tonometry) to check the pressure in the eye.
To detect skin cancer, it can be examined and if necessary, skin sampling or skin biopsy. Skin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the skin.
Tests can be done immediately when abnormal changes to the skin are found, such as a lump; moles that change color, size, or bleed; or the presence of abnormal tissue in the skin red, white, blue, or black with irregular borders.
Perform an auditory test (audiometry) if you experience hearing loss. Audiometry is used to evaluate the possibility of deafness, determine the type and level of hearing loss. Examination in infants and children is needed to detect hearing problems that can interfere with the ability to learn, speak, and understand language. The examination is done by looking at your response to the voice.
Read too: 10 Ears Health Tips
No one is free of plaque and tartar. Therefore, a routine dental examination every 6 months is needed early on to detect conditions such as abscesses or swollen pus due to infection, damage between teeth, damage to the jaw bone, impacted teeth due to abnormal growth of wisdom teeth, cysts or tumors.
If you find tartar, your doctor will clean it or scaling it. In addition, if there are signs of problems with the teeth, further X-ray examination is needed to determine the medical action needed.
Bone density tests aim to determine bone strength and help diagnose osteoporosis (bone loss). The examination is done by X-ray or CT scan. Tests need to be done by women aged 65 years and over, men aged 70 years and over, or anyone at risk for osteoporosis. Risk factors include long-term use of steroid drugs, smoking, consuming alcoholic beverages, being too low in weight, or having a family history of osteoporosis.
In addition to the above tests, several other tests may be needed such as examining s3xually transmitted diseases (STDs) and hepatitis B for people who are sexually active and have more than one sex partner, as well as lung disease examinations for heavy smokers. The following are some diseases including PMS as well as the necessary examinations.
- Gonorrhea requires a urine test. In some cases, it is necessary to take a fluid sample from the urethral canal in men and cervix in women, and throat.
- Genital herpes, the doctor will examine the symptoms and take samples from your wound.
- HIV requires antibody testing (immunoassay).
- Syphilis requires blood tests and examination of fluids from syphilis wounds.
- Hepatitis B, the examination for hepatitis B is the same as an HIV test, which is a blood sample to determine the presence and activity of this disease.
How much a person smokes can be measured by the number of smoking pack-years. A person's smoking pack-year rate is measured by multiplying the number of packets of cigarettes consumed per day by the number of years he smokes. So for example, someone who spent 2 packs of cigarettes every day for 4 years, he was said to have 8 smoking pack-years. Here are some of the risks that heavy smokers have and the checks needed.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), requires a lung function test that measures the amount of air in the lungs, the speed of entry and exit of air, and the use of X-rays in the chest.
- Lung cancer requires a CT scan. People aged 55-80 years with 30 smoking pack-years or more and who are still smoking or who have just stopped in the last 15 years, and anyone who has lung cancer risk after consulting a doctor, should do this examination.
In addition to the medical check-ups mentioned above, make sure you also know certain tests to detect certain types of cancer, which can appear secretly, without causing any symptoms. The medical check-up is an anticipatory step that is effective in detecting the risk of the presence of diseases in the body. Do it regularly to prevent the development of more severe diseases in the future.