What is the process of digestion and absorption of food in the body?

What is the process of digestion and absorption of food in the body? - Eating favorite foods is certainly a fun activity, but have you ever thought about how food consumed travels in the digestive process?

Food is the main energy source for the human body. The nutrient content in it will provide energy and other substances needed by cells in the body. But beforehand the food must go through the digestive process to become a fairly small part and can be absorbed by the body.

What is the process of digestion and absorption of food in the body?

Breaking down Nutrition in Food

Foods that have become small parts will be digested by the body in the four main digestive processes.


The mouth is the beginning of the entry of food into the digestive tract. Immediately after the first bite of food, the digestive process begins. When the process of chewing food becomes a smaller part, the salivary glands will produce saliva to help soften food. In addition, saliva also contains enzymes that begin to digest carbohydrates into smaller ones so they can be absorbed by the intestine.

The tongue will then push the already smooth food behind the mouth towards the esophagus or esophagus. Peristaltic movements of smooth muscles then bring food to the stomach.

Digestion in the stomach

The stomach that looks like a bag, has strong muscular walls surrounding it. In addition to accommodating food, the stomach also functions as a food crusher and refiner. The stomach will produce acids and enzymes that will continue the food digestion process. Out of the stomach, the food will have a liquid texture or resemble a soft paste which then moves into the small intestine. In the stomach, the process of protein digestion begins.

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Digestion and absorption in the small intestine

If measured, the small intestine has a length of about 6 meters consisting of three parts, namely the duodenum, the empty intestine (jejunum), and intestinal absorption (ileum). In it, food will be processed again with digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas, small intestinal wall, and bile from the gallbladder. The three will work together to complete the digestion of food to become small units that can be absorbed into the intestinal blood vessels.

Digestive enzymes will chemically break down complex food molecules into simpler ones, then bile helps a mechanical digestive process that breaks down fat into smaller particles. When food through the duodenum, it means the digestive process is complete. The next process is absorption.

Food absorption generally occurs in the jejunum and ileum small intestine. There are many folds there or called intestines (villi). Villi has the function of expanding the absorption surface, so that food can be absorbed more efficiently.

During the absorption process, food molecules will enter the bloodstream through the intestinal wall. Microscopic or capillary vessels in the villi will absorb digestive products in the form of proteins and carbohydrates, while the lymph vessels in the villi will absorb fat.

From there, blood flow will bring the digested food to the liver. The liver cells will then filter out harmful substances in the blood. The liver will also store fat-soluble vitamins and excessive nutrients, such as glucose to be stored as reserves. This reserve of nutrients will be released when the body needs extra energy for example when someone runs a marathon.

Absorption of the large intestine

Most of which enter the large intestine are leftovers that cannot be digested or absorbed and water. The large intestine consists of six parts, starting from the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and ending with the rectum.

The main task of the large intestine is to absorb water and minerals from the rest of the food so that it becomes denser and forms feces. Peristalsis will then push the stool into the rectum until it is expelled through the anus.

Adequacy of water and fiber are important factors that support the smooth digestion process. Make sure you drink about 8 glasses per day and eat fiber-rich vegetables and fruits so that the digestive system's health is maintained for excellent body condition.

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